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International laws to protect journalists

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For more than 60 years, many international laws were passed to protect journalists and allow them to defend their rights in time of peace and war and military conflicts.
The following is the most important of these laws:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
Article 19 stipulates that "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas, receive and impart any means, without complying with the limits and geographical."
UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1966:
Article (19) stipulates that everyone has the right to hold whatever he wants without interference, and each person has the right to freedom of expression, this right includes freedom to seek various forms of information and ideas, receive and impart to others in any template and through any medium of his choice, and regardless of frontiers.
UNESCO Declaration on the Contribution of the media in the promotion of world peace and international understanding and promotion of human rights and combating racism and incitement to war for the year 1978:
Article II provides that the exercise of freedom of opinion and expression and freedom of information recognized as an integral part of human rights and fundamental freedoms is a vital factor in promoting peace and international understanding.
Johannesburg Declaration 2002 for national security and freedom of access to information:
Supported the right of access to information, as one of the rights necessary to ensure the enjoyment of the right to freedom of opinion and expression.
Special Report of the United Nations on freedom of opinion and expression, 1993:
"The freedom of expression, including access to information held by the State, and received positive obligations on States to ensure access to information."
Arab Charter on Human Rights resolution 2004
Ensure that the Charter right to information and freedom of opinion and expression, as well as the right to impart information and ideas, receive and impart to others by any means, without the effect of geographical boundaries (all Arab states do not allow entry until the publication of Arab without prior censorship).
European Court of Human Rights 2010
Necessary to protect the freedom of the press in particular to be able to play its vital role assigned to it, and provide information and ideas of interest to the public.
Arab constitutions
Provides most of the constitutions of Arab freedom of opinion and freedom of the press, and stated that the text in the constitutions of Jordan in Article 15, and Egypt, Article 47-48, and Lebanon, 13, and Kuwait, 36-37, and Bahrain, 23, and Yemen, 26, Algeria 39, UAE 30, Sudan 48, and Tunisia 8, and Qatar, 13, and Syria, 38, and Saudi Arabia, 39, and in the Iraqi constitution, Article 36.
However, these laws - often - was attached to restricted material terms such as: the limits of the law, and in accordance with the law, or the conditions prescribed by law.
International humanitarian law:
Article 79 of the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Convention of 1949 for the protection of civilian conflict military stipulates that civilian journalists who perform their duties in the areas of armed conflict must be respected and treated as civilians, and protecting them from all forms of deliberate attack, provided that they take actions that violate their status as civilians.
Study of the International Committee of the Red Cross on customary rules of international law, human 2005:
Article 34 of Chapter X "should respect and protect the civilian journalists engaged in professional missions areas of armed conflict as long as they do not do the efforts of direct part in hostilities."
Resolution 1738 of UN Security Council:
Text of the resolution to:
- Condemned intentional attacks against journalists and media staff and associated personnel in armed conflicts.
- Equality of the safety and security of journalists and media crews and assistance in areas of armed conflict to protect civilians there.
- As a journalist and freelance journalists civilians must be respected and treated as such.
- Considering the facilities and equipment for the media civilian objects may not be the object of attack or of reprisals.

Source: Al Jazeera

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